A Comparative Study of Relationship to the narrative
structure between Goethe Literature and Lee, Kwang-Soo Literature*)1)
Chin, Sang-Bum (Chonbuk National Univ.)
When all Europe was faced to a period of crisis with emergence of Napoleon in 1813, Goethe has originated from the idea of World Literature, which inspired all the European intellectuals a sence of mission that must demonstrate the spirit of forbearance and mutual understanding through the spiritual exchange making it possible to overcome the chaos of a period of the East and the West, Being based on such a profound view of the world and the spirit of world literature, Goethe published a drama of apprentice (Bildungsdrama) Faust, a confessional love story of epistolary style Die Leiden des Jungen Werthers, a roman of apprentice (Bildungsroman) Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre and a poetry of world literature idelogy Chinesisch-deutsche Jahres -Tageszeiten, West -östlicher Divan.
Goethe’s classical work for world-literature that could be unforgettable for good to the history of world literature was translated and then introduced to the whole nations. This resulted in opening the new horizon to the literature of every country. Goethe’s spirit for World-literature became the spiritual asset sharing with all the intellectual of global village.
In this paper specially the goal of my paper is to examine the relationship to the narrative structure between Goethe Literature and Lee, Kwang-Soo Literature on the comparative level.
In first capital of this paper before questing the relationship to the narrative structure reception of Goethe in Lee, Kwang-Soo, I can not help surveying the reception of Goethe in Japan that served as a predecessor of german literature to Korean writers, Because Lee, Kwang-Soo was influenced through reading western literature in japanese version while their having studied in Japan Waseda Universities.
In the second capital it will be considered how Goethe’s narrative style like Picaresqueroman and Bildungsroman has been shown up in Lee, Kwang-Soo’s work Heartlessness.
In the third capital I will research how all the element of confession that is immanent in Goethe’s Works Die Leiden des jungen Werthersis emerged into an epistolary literature of Lee, Kwang-Soo.
I will examine closely the cause of
all the element of confession which exist in the western roman and japanese
modern writers in relationship with Rousseau’s
confession as a source study of comparative literature.
Ⅰ. The Reception of Goethe Literature in Japan
Goethe Literature entered into Korea by the medium of Japan. Therefore, we must, first of all, investigate the reception of Goethe in Japan. I will try to examine Goethe’s works that had the greatest influence on japanese people, for example, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, Faust, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. At the beginnings of Meiji 20, Goethe has been introduced into Japan with full scale. Especially, Mori-Ogai who had a role as god father in the field of the translation and research in German literature came back to Japan, after finishing four year’s study in Germany. A new era of Goethe Renaissance is now on the beginning with Mori Ogai’s activities of translation on Goethe. Goethe’s work Die Leiden des jungen Werthers translated by him has been introduced into Japan. The term’ sentimentalism has begun to be used to the people, with the publishment of this translation work. This work exerts an influence on Japanese writers of mid-times Meizi. The persons who firstly translated this work is Kanesiro and Nakai Kitaro. Their summarized translation book of Werther with the title of “old novels” was published.1)
Kanesiro translated Goethe’s lovestory Die Leiden des jungen Werthers with a reference of English version in part. Mori-Ogai, who felt dissatisfied with Kanesiro’s translation corrected mistakes in translation of Kanesiro and also he presented himself the precise translation based on the original works.2) Goethe’s works Werther was translated by Takayama Chogyo. In his high schooldays, this works were published serially in Yamagata newspaper through Takayama Chogyo from 23rd July at the year of Meizi 24 to the 30th September.3)
The German Literary Works that has been translated to the most is Die Leiden des Jungen Werthers since Meizi period in Japan. Until to the mid of Meizi 30 years from Meizi 20 years literary tendency of Werthers was occurred to the Japan literary world. The people who wanted to become the writer were recommended to read Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. Both the young who had a tendency to receive the western literature and even the conservative japanese intellectuals who intended to adhere to the japanese tradition thought that if they don’t read Goethe’s novels, then it will be regarded as falling behind the times.
For the japanese youths of those days intending to make a characteristic love and emphasizing the freedom of individual character, Goethe’s works were regarded as the textbook of making love romans. In the Year of Meizi 37 that started the translation of Goethe’s works Die Leiden des Jungen Werthers this novel was translated by Kubo tenzui and it was published out by Kinkodo. This love story translated by Hata Toyokitsi at the era of Tai Syo was also published out by Sinshyosha. Goethe’s works have a strong influence on the writers in those days.
Now, Let’s find out about the reception of Goethe’s Faust in Japan.
Although Goethe’s Bildungsdrama Faust Part 1 was translated by Takihasi Goro, the very person who accomplished the perfect translation of Faust 1 and Faust II was Mori Ogai. He published out the book titled Faust and, at the same time, he wrote many papers about Faust. This accomplished a decisive role in the modernization of japan’s literature. He has a sharp sence of german language, therefore he could translate all the german works close to perfection. Until now, it is difficult to find such translations as to exceed to that of Mori Ogai.4)
Kohori Keiichiro, who researched German literature and Mori Ogai points out that we can not get over the level of Mori Ogai with the power of the present Japan literature world especially in the linguistic accuracy. Uzimura Kaujo, who is famous for his christian ideology has been reached to the level of being able to read through Faust by studying the German language hard. He called Faust as the world wide Bible. Uzimura Kaujo points out that Japan could free ourselves of the narrow minded as moral nature as the people of island country by experiencing the universal and cosmic literature of Goethe5).
Through the European literature, through becoming aware of the world to the Japan people and through sending out a warning message to Japan imperialism.6) He performed a great services in the research of the reception of Faust in Japan.
Anezaki Chohu had an emphasis on philosophy in his university days and went to Germany for studying. After finishing his research on Philosophy and religion in German universities just like Kiel, Berlin and Leibzig, he returned Japan to teach the students as a professor in Tokyo Imperial University.
He made a literary works in the religion philosophy, Hindu Philosophy and Buddist Literature and also was fascinated with the works of Schopenhauer. As a literary criticism, he wrote the essay Magarethe’s fortune in Faust of Goethe as the first literary criticism, he has a command of a noble literary style.7) Especially. Anezaki Chohu is in search of mercifully religious salvation for the redemption of Faust. The tendency of a sence of sovereignty and independence that founf out the element of mercy common to the buddhist Japan literature and Faust could be desirable for the reception of Western literature.
The representative Japan writers that our representative writer Lee, Kwang-Soo had in contact with them reflected Goethe literature into their own works. The name of representative writers are as follows : Mori Ogai, Simajaki Toson, Tokutomi Roka, Natsume Soseki. In particular Mori Ogai, who studied in Germany from the year of 1884 to ’88 read extensively the German Literature and made a decisive role in arousing the national spirit to Japan literary world. From the age of 11, he had already studied German language and translated with his own best effort Goethe’s complete collection as many as 45 volumes of Reclam Edition at the times of abroad studying in Germany. His German textbooks as a clue showing how he read Goethe’s complete collection carefully have their possession in Tokyo university.8)
He published his Anthology Omokage as soon as he returned to Japan. They say that “the song of Mignon” appearing to Faust have a large effect on Japan writers Mori Ogai wrote his own novel “a fantasy” in Meizi 40. March. The main actor in this novel was fascinated with Goethe’s literature world as much as quoting from the worlds of Goethe. Among achievements of Mori Ogai we can not help mentioning the translation of Faust into Japanese language. He had so much interested in reading Faust at the time of his abroad studying in Germany and decided to translate even a draft hard to understand. At the year of Meizi 44 he was entrusted with the translation of Goethe’s Faust from the Japan education information Committee. The first volume was appeared on January of Tai Syo 2 (1913) and then the second volume on March in a row. His Faust translation obtained the highest popularity and was settled down as the best seller.
Next, let’s find out the relationship of Goethe and Simajaki Toson. At the time of Meizi 35, as he was 20 years, the popular writers in Japan were Shakespear, Byron and Goethe. Especially, after reading Goethe’s works, he received Goethe’s literary world as it is. As he published out Wakanasyo, Goethe’s verse is quoted from his book9) and the poem Nazkusa is influenced by Faust10). The poem models after Prolog im Himmel, apperaing on Faust. If we try to find out the relationship between Natsume Soseki and Goethe, Natsume Soseki had been conscious of the problem of establishment of the self that is indispenable element of modern literature by contacting not only with europe literature, but also England literature, He recommended his students to read Goethe’s complete collection, On the basis of this fact, it is difficult to think that he did not read Goethe’s complete collection. After reading the poem of Ossian appearing on Werther, he translated Ossian written Scottisch. This fact can be a sufficient proof that ha had an interest in Goethe.11)
Ikeda Kosi tells us about Natsume Soseki, who is a person of merit for the establisment of modern literature of Japan as followings :
The life of Natsume Soseki was started from establishment of the self by meeting with Europe spirit through English literature research. the modern awareness that was once formed and he devoted himself to buliding up own literary world on the conflict between Japanese sociey and japan’s everday life12).
Refering to a quotation, we can understand that Natsume Soseki must have known the general characteristic of Europe literature through the research of English literature, characteristics of Goethe Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre through Carlyle’s english version and his Goethe Essay. he also must have known the essence of Bildungsroman and spirit of Goethe Literature. Natsume Soseki had close relationship with Japanese novelists and Scholars like Huzisiro Teiske, Suga Torao, Morita Sohei who had majored in German literature.13) It is possible that he could understand not only the humanistic
spirit of german literature, but also the technique of german typical Bildungsroman through personal contact with them.
Natsume Soseki has written a novel in three parts-Samsiro, Soregara and door which revealed the elements of Bildungsroman. This fact shows that he had already understood the essence of German Bildungsroman.
In addition to this, Tokutomi Roka has also throughly read out Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre accepted the technique of Goethe’s Bildungsroman in the techniques of his roman.
Let’s consider the relationship between the Japanese writers and Lee, Kwang-Soo, when Lee, Kwang-Soo studied in Japan’s Waseda university, he contacted with Tokutomi Roka, Kinosita Naoe, Kunikita Doto, Tayama Katai, Natsume Soseki, Simajaki Toson. Among them, the Japanese writers who were deeply influenced by German literature were Natsume Soseki, Tokutomi Roka, Simajaki Toson.
Lee, Kwang-Soo confessed on his own essay “Goethe and I” that he read through “Die Leiden des jungen Werthers” and “Faust”.
In the works of Lee, Kwang-Soo we
try to investigate in this paper we could confirm that Goethe’s literature world through Japanese
writers was included. Accodingly, we try to investigate the relationship
between Goethe and Lee, Kwang-Soo in the aspect of narrative style.
Ⅱ. The relationship of Goethe’s narrative structure of picaresque and Bildungsroman with Lee, Kwang-Soo’s roman Heartlessness
I will try to analyze how the transformational structure from the picaresque style to the Bildungsroman style was expressed in the literary works of Lee, Kwang-Soo Heartlessness focussing on the relationship of the Changing Hero from pikaresque Hero to confessional Hero of Bildungsroam between Goethe and Lee, Kwang-Soo.
Goethe’s roman Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre showes the changing Hero from picaresque Hero to confessional Hero of Bildungsroman. Professor David H. Miles also points out in his treatiese on Pikaors Weg zum Bekenner (The Picaro’s Journey to the Confessional) : The Changing Image of the Hero in the German Bildungsroman that as the step of picaresque wandering from the first act to the fifth act, in the sixth act, the beautiful confession of our soul Goethe makes readers being forwarded to the internal and sacred world.14)
That can be seen to be an entering step as Bildungsroman roman that sprouts out the fertility of internal world in the picaresque step.
From the first act to the fifth act, if the step of wandering of human being is like the heart extension of human being, then in the sixth act the tendency of internal world will become the contraction of heart in human being. The last 7th and 8th act can be comprehended as the sublimination of both heart-extention of human being and the heart contraction of human being,15) then in the sixth act the tendency of internal world will become the contraction of heart in human being. The last 7th and 8th act can be comprehended as the sublimination of both heart-extention and heart contraction. Writer has also analyzed and commented on the experience of main actor with every step, The reserach on Goethe’s Bildungsroman. First of all, I will try to review about the existence of picaresque wandering stage (heart-extention), internalization stage(heart contraction) and the sublination of both poles (harmony with the odeal) that professor Miles has pointed out, Prior to discuss about picaresque element appearing onto the Heartlessness, picaresque conception and the social background that picaresque roman could not help appearing must be referred to. Originally the word “Picaro” means the comlination of the words like wanderer, servant and the crooked.16) Picaro possesses all kinds of elements like adventurer, the bad and the poor and, at the same time, Picaro is the conception that go beyond over these three meanings.17) Ordinarily saying about picaro, the reason Picaro has been dealt with in the roman seems to be the repulsion against the hero conception that the main actor possesed within the heart of hero the ideal is placed into the heart of the hero, but the cause of Picaro’s behavior is the one of the simple and material factor like the hungry. The original form of picareke roman, Lazarello is quoted from Lazarus of the bible. At any rate, Picaro has a direct connection with the poor environment. Picaro, in most cases, loses the parents in childhood and because of the poor picaro leaves the homeplace and seek for the protector that is depending on the living. Facing the disregarded of the world and recognizing the hardship of the world, Picaro learns of the self. The writer shows Picaro’s adventurous temperature and wandering looks. Picaro witnesses the unethical and concept social situation making him be aware of the contradition of society and the weakness of human nature. Picaro brings a charge against the unmoral social status, the happiness and unhappiness are achieved accidentally. Even though we achieved to the goal or gained the luckiness, all the things soon become fruitless. Therefore, Picaro is aware of the uncertainty of the world in so many times. At last picarequeroman has the biographical element equipped with a first person novel. The narrator of picaresqueroman tells us the world reminding us of the confused one with a situation of the concealed. Picaro has a type of the wanderer and has no mony. Picaro is always situated in the dark side of our society. In his situation Picaro comes to realize his own mission that should do in this world. This fact has a similar point with Buldungsroman. In the perspective of roman history, we know generally that it was developed from picareke roman to the Bildungsroman in which the inside of human beings was described. “Heartlessness” of Lee, Kwang-Soo had the picareke element because the writer had spent in his child as an orphant. Such an unhappy experience and the situation of the dackend imperialistic rule by Japan made him introduce the picareque element. I also will try to investigate about the change from picaresque stages to the one of Bildungsroman with the main character, Lee, Hyung-Shik and Park, Young-Chae appearing onto “the Heartlessness”. First of all, in case of Lee, Hyung-Sik how he achieved the reconcilation with the actual and the way of the inside of the Bildungsroman roman in picaresque wandering. Lee, Hyung-Sik lost his parents in his childhood. Becoming as an orphant, he starts his life as a wanderer. Afterwards, he helps every kind of chores to house of the Senior Park to obtain the opportunity to contract with the new knowledge. the daughter of the Senior Park, Young-Chae and Lee, Hyung-Sik promised to marry in the near future. When the senior Park prosecuted and sentenced to be intial for many years, Lee, Hyung-Sik left the house. The attitude toward Park, Young-Chae, after leaving her house, has a kind of picareke type. When she met Lee, Hyung-Sik, She had a look of voluptuous Gisaeng (woman, who),18) in other side, she had a look as innocence that has lived only for Lee, Hyung-Sik.19) In other words, she had a doubled looks.
Lee, Hyung-Sik also shows such a double looks that picareke human type possesses in many times in this roman. Lee, Hyung-Sik must marry Park, Young-chae by considering the principles of righteousness, but only for his own rising in the world he selected, Kim, Sun-Hyung who is rich in wealth for the purpose of going abroad studying in America,20) Lee, Hyung-Sik had felt good by the beautiful flower on the graved of the Senior Park, Lee, Hyung-Sik had no sorrow feelings upon the senior Park who had already been dead. The Senior Park helped him with all his effort. But he had no thankful mind upon the Senior Park. Lee, Hyung-Sik is in antimony.21) Lee. Hyung-sik wanted to major in the literature. But all his snobbery that wanted to rise in the world made him change his major from the literature to the physiology under the name of the modernization of our country. Such a type of snobbery proves that he is a type of Pikaresque human being. Professor Lee, Bo-Young points out the many styles of picaresque who are wandering by deceiving others and to be deceived by his own self as a vagabond who do not belong to anybody. I think that Professor Lee’s remarks about the types of Picaresque is fairly valid.22)
Lee, Hyung-Sik finishes his unfaithful works as a reacher and tries to find out the dead body of Park, Young-Chae and then he marries Sun-Hyung for rising in the world. After marrying her, Lee, Hynung-Sik leaves America for studying. This stage can be seen as picaresque stages. Lee, Hyung-Sik believes love is the most important and sacred one among all mental functions.
He realizes that his love for Sun-Hyung is very poor and childish. Also he newly awakens through the flooding accident in Sam Rang Jin the missionery feeling as a pioneer for the modernization of our people in a dismal and darkened situation of those days. Lee, Hyung-Sik did not go through the stage of the inside reflecting his own self completely. Instead of it, because of the flooding experience in Sam Rang Jin he came to realize the sence of mission for our people as an intellect in those days. The ceremony of a pledge for the motherland in Sam Rang Jin Hotel appearing in his work is similar to the one of a certificate of study done in the castle of Lothario.23) The conviction that Lee must contribute to our society for the development of our country reminds us of changing into the civilized human being that the times is demanding by Wilhelm’s marrying with Natalie24) who is an incarnation of the actual and the ideal in order to be more mature as a profitable human being at that time.
Next Let’s investigate all procedures from picaresque stage of wandering to the one of Bildungsroman by concentrating on the experience of main actor, Park, Young-Chae who is the most important character in Heartlessness. In order to meet the father and brothers who are in jail and go through all the hardship, our main actor, Park, Young-Chae escapes from his mother’s maiden home that was treated with badness. He goes all the way to Pyongyang. On his way to Pyongyang, all the difficulties are waiting for him to the stage of wandering of Park, Young-Chae that can be called as ‘Night-Journey’ Park experiences a lot of hardships in the process of contacting with picareque character. The small Young-Chae who is disguised as a man arrives at one village. She meets some rascals who bet about whether she is a man or a woman. One rascal finds out that Young-Chae is a woman. On the moment of a crisis when he tries to rape her on his way home by carrying her on the back, she succeeds to escape with her own power25). Our innocent Young-Chae that has known that only all the good people are living in this world experiences all the bad of the world for himself.26) Though her father like a strange who is on the opposite of expectation that will meet her warmly in the meeting room of jail. She feels the pain of estrangement in this society.27) By the persuasion of mad-aged man she met on the meeting room in the jail she selected the vocation that could earn so much money to save her father. That was the vocation of parasitism. She was sure that this was the only way to save father who are in hardship without any reason. Through Wolhwa who is predecessor in the life of parasitism she learns a lot in this world. For the first time, Young-Chae feels the physical loneliness as woman and Young-Chae holds Wolhwa in her arms. By doing this, she starts to feel the sex in a little measure.28) On the other hand, Wolhwa whom she loved and followed committed a suicide. Young-Chae lies in an emotional shack. From that on Young Cha has longing for the death.29) Park, Young-Chae is raped in a cruel way beyond our imagination from Kim, Hyun-Su who is called educator. She now loses her virgin that has kept for so long a time not to break the promise that her father made with Lee, Hyung-Sik. She now falls in a frustration. From an absentmindedness that she lost her virgin regarded as her life she decided to commit a suicide in Daedong river like the one of Wolhwa and then she leaves her house.30) Such a realization of Young-Chae is similar to the pain of disappointed love for Mirianne that Wilhelm has experienced in Goethe’s roman “Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre”.31) The scene of Mignon’s being mistrated by theater director,32) Wilhelm’s injury by a surprise attack of bandit,33) the shock by the notice of father’s death34) and the madness of the old rushing to kill his son Felix,35) The Hero of this Work Wilhelm’s inner shock aroused from the sudden death of Aurelius36) are similar to the hardship of Young-Chae. Park, Young-Hae who was intended to commit a suicide because she can not keep her fidelity. She believed that she could be expiated a crime with death by throwing the dishonored body into Daedong River. She sends a letter like will to Lee, Hyung-Sik. Park, Young-Hae happens to meet Kim, Byong-Uk in the train to the way for committing suicide. Though him she takes the opportunity to escape from the consideration of a feudalistic idea that she has firmly believed. She now turns into a new modernized woman. Young-Chae who was escaped from her social bondage realized that our life is free and enjoyable. She tired to be born newly as a useful human being for the country by finishing all the arts lesson as younger and more beautiful actor, The following conversation between Byunguk and Young-Chae tells us that the old Young-Chae has been dead and new Young-Chae is born again.
At that time I haven’t already been dead! When you wash my face and I felt that I was reborn! That’s correct it’s a resurrection. If it were not for you, I would killed myself. I will already be decayed.37)
On the other hand, in case of Goethe, the main actor ‘Wilhelm’ intends to make another new life as the result of being aware of the limitation of his own ability and the world of theater that he has fallen into. He feels keenly the necessity of mother that will educate ‘Mignon’ and Felix’as a human being that the times demands. For the education of Felix, by combining with such female Natalie as to be equipped with the actual sense and at the same time, with the ethical and religious myth, all should develope from the human being that loves arts to the one that is beneficial citizens that the times demand. Such an actual recognition of ‘Wilhelm’ has the similarity with the one of Lee, Hyung-Sik Heartlessness and the one of Park, Young-Chae. The actual recognition of these two characters is that we should be turned into such men as to build up our country newly. The difference between Goethe and Lee, Kwang-Soo is that the former shows the actual human type that our times demand, but the latter is aware of the future human type being beneficial to the modernization of our country in the near fure. Conclusively, in the novel Heartlessness of Lee, Kwang-Soo, like that we have discussed until now, narrative structure of Goethe’s Wilhelm’s Meisters Lehrjahre like picaresque Wandering structure and the structure of Bildungsroman is emerging out through two characters, Lee, Hyung-Sik and Park, Young-Chae.
The reason why the literature of Lee, Kwang-Soo possesses the narrative structure of Goethe is that Lee has obtained the knowledge of Bildungsroman through the Japanese writers who have already been in reception in japan prior to Lee, Kwang-Soo.
For example, such Japan writers as Natsume Soseki that Lee Kwang-Soo was influenced have already understood the tradition of Bildungsroman directly through the reading of Wilhelm Meister’s Lehrjahre and its english version by Carlyle.38) For example, Natsume Soseki_ has ever Produced the works
Sansiro. According to the style of Bildungsroman he has ever
created a character of youth like the young hero of german typical
Bildungsroman.39) His most of the works influenced Lee, Kwang-Soo.
His works can be found in elements of Goethe’s Bldungsroman. Main character Sansio, as an innocent youth of rural
areas, enters into Tokyo university and has an experience of love with Mineko,
and also has another experience to the arts and theater, to the new world in
urban life completely different from rural areas. The prominent arts experience
of the west through the drawer, Haragucci and through the famous physicist
Nonomia has an opportunity to know many people especially, his friend yoshio
who is talkative and possessing artistic sense and he was contacting with the
teacher, Hiroda, who is philosophical and metaphysical. Through making friends
with them he grew up his self. Such procedures to become a Hero is described in
this roman. Therefore, we come to recognize that this roman also contains the
structure of Bildungsroman. Lee, Kwang-Soo may think of Heartlessness by
an allusion of the structure of Goethe’s Bildungsroman
through the works of Natsme Soseki. And under the ages of darkend situation of
the times the picaresque structure of this work may be created by adding the
biographical picaresque element of the writer going through all the hardship of
the orphan and poverty.
Ⅲ. The relationship of epistolary confessional style between Goethe and Lee, Kwang-Soo
Finally, in he literary works of Lee, Kwang-Soo The people who tried to give love, we should investigate how Goethe’s epistolary style for confession is appeared in these two works. From the old times, in the west and the east the tradition of the novel of epistolary style has possessed a kind of form of genre from the late of the 17th century. In reaction of the unreliable love story, in the 18th century the letter of persia by Montesqueu is the most successful novel. The Epistolary style in the 18th century was inserted as frame story (Rahmenerzähung) expressing the psychological problems of love and betrayal and had an aspect of social critics. Samuel Richardson of England introduced epistolary style into Europe40) through his novel Pamela,
Clarissa Harlowe, The history of sir Charles Grandison not only for the form, but also for the contexts with the consideration of the citizens’s sensuality and diverse subject. He also influenced to Rousseau and Goethe.41) In 18th Century, the culture of sensibility and the trend of self-Confession and prosperity of the past made an opportunity develop the epistolary style as one genre.
For example, the representative novels of epistolary style in the 18th century are Pamela of Richardson and la nouvelle heloise of Rousseau and Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers.42) Goethe’s works Die leiden des jungen Werthers was published out in the year of 1774. Professor, Lee, Jae Sun suggested that Pamela, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers were the most typical epistolary style and these two works had the most influence on the development of the novel of epistolary style in the essay titled On the research of Korean short stories43) Ordinarily, when we exemplify the epistolary style of the beginning of modern literature in Korea, we present the following sentences, in most cases, related with Werther.
The main character in the works and other secondary main character sent a letter to others. This letter was read through the novel and the main affairs in the letter was also discussed in the novel. The whole novel is composed of letter. Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is a good example.44)
Before and after the French revolution it was emerged, and it gave all the human beings of those days the painful sorrow and sympathy. That is the novel named Die Leiden des jungen Werthers.
They say that Goethe’s literature is the one of experience and the one of confession. Goethe’s novel of epistolary style Die Leiden des jungen Werthers has also been included in the element of confession. He may, I think, recognize the sublime values that the innocent confession possesses through Confession of Rousseau.45) The model of epistolary style for Goethe was the
one of Richardson and Rousseau.46) Finally, Goethe accepted, I think, the epistolary style in his literary world to emphasize the element of confession and the nature of human being. I will try to investigate the elements of confession appearing onto the novel of Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and I will also apply such elements to the novel of epistolary style of Yeom, Sang-Seob and Lee, Kwang-Soo, if such elements are existing in their novels. At first, in the novel of epistolary style of Lee, Kwang-Soo, the people who are hungry in love the narrator who loved a sister-in-law confession his crime after as many as 8 years. He precisely confesses the situation of those days psychologically. I will compare one phrase of Goethe’s novel of epistolary style Die Leiden des jungen Werthers with The people who tried to give love of Lee, Kwang-Soo.
Goethe : I decide not to meet Lotte in my mind very often. But how could I keep it to my mind. I was to overcome to the temptation. But the next day I have new determination not to visit her.47)
Lee, Kwang-Soo : It was true that I loved the wife of my elder brother, Such love towards her was begun rather from my middle school days than the time when I lived together with my elder brother. After they left me to go to Tokyo, I felt like lonely man, who was thrown down ice world. Several days long I could not sleep and eat. I was at the crossroad. [...]48)
In the case of Goethe’s die Leiden des jungen Werther, The Hero Werther made a strong decision that he should not love Lotte, but he confessed that being overwhelmed with his passionate love, he could not help meeting Lotte again.
In other hand, in case of Lee, Kwang-Soo, he also confessed to his elder brother that he made one sided love towards his elder brother’s wife. We can point out the common point between over mentioned both writers that both created a epistolary style in which the confess of passionate love was expressed.
At first, we must know if the japanese writers who influenced Lee, Kwang-Soo were influenced by Rousseau. Let’s review of the relationship between Lee, Kwang-Soo and japan writers. Lee, Kwang-Soo tells us that he read confessions and Emile of Rousseau in presenting his library lists through his works Heartlessness. Rousseau’s confession was translated into Japanese language in the beginning of Meizi era and became popular through Japan readers.
With so many titles in Meizi 16 it was introduced into Japan. Especially Simajaki Toson, who had a great influence on Lee, Kwang-Soo was the admirer of Rousseau. He read the confession of English version.49) With an
influence by reading the book, he wrote two works New birth, Offense against the commandments.50)
For example, in Offense against the commandments the main character Segawa Usimats coming from the small village, goes through all the agony and the conflict of the inside. Then he discarded all the disciplines of father and confessed his own social status. In this works such a procedure of awakening of the self of modern times is described. The prominent common point is that if Offense against the commandments is the confession of individual agony, then, on the other hand, confession of Rousseau is filled with all the clearly frank self-confession. Therefore the common point of both writers is the narrative style of the confession for the description of Modern Self -Awakening.
Conclusively, like the roman Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, the element of confession is the result of a direct influence of Rousseau epistolary style, but Lee, Kwang-Soo who was indirectly influenced through Japan’s writers Simajaki Toson and Arasima Takeo, who were also directly influenced by Rousseau. By such indirect influence Lee, Kwang-Soo could produce the roman of epistolary style like Goethe.
At the chapter one, in order to investigate the relationship between the literature of Goethe and that of Lee, Kwang-Soo, who the influence of Goethe were had indirectly through Japanese writers just like Mori Ogai, Natsme Soseki I, firstly, tried to examine into the reception of Goethe in Japan. Korea. The initiator of German literature in Japan was the genius writer Mori Ogai, who came back in Japan after four year’s studying in Germany. we came to know that over mentioned Korean both Writers understood the essence of Goethe’s literary world through reading lots of Goethe’s works like Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Faust. Also both Korean Writers could grasp the western narrative Styles just like picaresques-and Bildungsroman through Natsme Soseki and Mori Ogai’s romans with Western narrative Style.
At the chapter two, on the basis of harmony with internal and external power and picaresque wandering stage and internal stage includes in picaresque wandering stage and internal stage included in Goethe’s Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre that David H. Miles has presented, we analyzed the narrative structure of Goethe’s appearing in the heartlessness of Lee, Kwang-Soo. Through analyzing the narrative structure we comprehended that Goethe’s picaresque structure and the structure of culture were appearing through the main characters ‘Lee, Hyung-Sik’ and ‘Park. Young-Chae’.
The main motivation of Lee’s establishing a narrative structure of picareskroman can be understood to be in relationship with his dark period under japanese oppression and his personal hardships. Because the common point of picareskroman which he stressed just like confusion of chaotic society and hostile attitude towards the chaotic society and gradge appears apparently in the colonial period. We come to recognize that this colonial political situation in which Lee experienced was the best condition for the generation of this picarequeroman. In another sides we can point out that Lee from his childhood as orphan had difficulties in Life which he had to overcome
In considering the generation of Goethe’s Bildungsroman in Lee, Kwang-Soo we can point out three sides like his reading experience of Goethe’s Bildungsdrama Faust, Japanese Novellist Natsme Soseki and the patriotic thought of Ahn, Chang-Ho. Goethe’s Bildungsdrama Faust can be understood as wandering process of Hero Faust through ordeal of Love, Life, homicide after getting physical freedom at the cost of paying his spirit for 25 years to Mephistopeles in order to reach to the ultimate goal of salvation, with Grechen’s help.
The Natsme Soseki of Japanese writers was the best influencer to Lee, Kwang-Soo. While having stayed for study of English literature in England, it is possible that he came to understand the essence of german typical narrative Style of Bildungsroman through Goethe’s works translated by Carlyle. He reflected a narrative Style like Bildungsroman in his work Sansiro. This work shows us the Wandering Process of Hero Sansiro through experience of Love with Mineco, Art, friendship with Yosiro and Awakening of metaphysical view of life. The image of Hero Sansiro associates us of the genuine image of Park, Young-Chae revealed in the work of Lee, Kwang-Soo. We can understand that the last decision which Heroine Park will be Artist in order to make great contribution to developing his country in the future in Lee’s work Heartlessness was derived from the racial patriotic thought of Ahn, Chang-Ho. Under the Japanese oppression Ahn, Chang-Ho convicted that there was need to have a patriotic mind in oder to make independent autonomy, escaping from Japan Oppression. At that time Lee, Kwang-Soo was influenced from Ahn, Chang-Ho. Lee tried to express a sence of duty to enlighten the future of race through creating a western modernized characters, breaking from the feudalistic convention. In particular the structure of picaresque and Bldungsroman of Goethe was positively and creatively changed and applied in the work of Lee, Kwang-Soo Heartlessness, receiving a suggestion from Natsme Soseki. Finally, to find out the element of confession by epistolary style of Goethe appearing in the literature of Lee, Kwang-Soo, we analyzed Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. Lee, Kwang-Soo’s The people who are hungry in love. We could find out the inclusion of the element of epistolary style in these two works. In case of Goethe, through the direct contact with Rousseau and in case of Lee, Kwang-Soo through indirect contact with Rousseau through Simajaki Toson, Arasima Takeo, we could confirm that the novels by epistolary style of these three writers had the element of confession.
Therefore Lee, Kwang-Soo must be
appreciated greatly as forerunner in the history of Korean roman who showed
Korean readers the romans of western style for a first time under the japanese
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괴테문학과 이광수 문학과의 서사적 구조의 상관성 비교연구
진 상 범 (전북대)
예컨대 明治 20년과
David. H. Miles이 제시한
Meisters Lehrjahreꡕ에 내재되어
주인공 ‘이형식’과 ‘박영채’를
ꡔDie Leiden des jungen Werthersꡕ, ꡔ사랑에
주렸던 이들ꡕ, ꡔ除夜ꡕ와
【주제어】: 괴테, 이광수, 서사구조, 비교문학
【Schlüsselbegriffe】: Goethe, Lee, Kwang-Soo, Narrative Struktur, Vergleichende Literaturwissenschaft
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논문투고일 2004. 10. 27 논문심사일 : 2004. 11. 6 게재확정일 2004. 12. 1